A major objective of this study is to find determinants of cognitive deterioration with age, and to estimate their relative impact. The aim of MAAS is to relate various factors (biological, medical, psychological and social) in an integrative study of cognitive aging.

Study Design

Study Design Cohort
General Information on Follow Up (profile, frequency)

The frequency of follow-up depends on actual age, i.e. three, six, nine, twelve and 25 years for subjects aged 50 years and older, and six, nine, twelve and 25-years for younger subjects. The third follow-up (9 years) consists of a full questionnaire survey. The total duration of the follow-up program is 25 years, closing with a full questionnaire survey and the final cognitive assessment in the laboratory.

Recruitment Target
  • Individuals
Number of Participants

1,823

Number of Participants with Biosamples

954

Access

Yes
No
Not Applicable
Don't know
Possible Access to Data

Possible Access to Biosamples

Other

Marker Paper

Jolles, J., van Boxtel, M. P. J., Ponds, R. W. H. M., Metsemakers, J. F. M., & Houx, P. J. (1998). De Maastricht Aging Study (MAAS): Het longitudinaal perspectief van cognitieve veroudering. Tijdschrift voor Gerontologie en Geriatrie 29(3): 120-129

PUBMED 9675779

Supplementary Information

Four panel studies (A1-A2-A3-A4) were executed between 1993 and 1995, sharing the same methodology with respect to sample frame, subject inclusion and stratification criteria, and basic measurement protocol. Each A-study includes an independent population sample and a set of specific variables in addition to the set of variables that is constant for all A-studies. Following this cross-sectional phase, panels were assessed in the longitudinal phase of the study.

Study Timeline

Each colour in the timeline graph below represents a separate Study Population, while each segment in the graph represents a separate Data Collection Event. Clicking on a segment gives more detailed information on a Data Collection Event.

Populations

MAAS - A1

Men and women aged 24 to 86 years at baseline and in general good health, sampled from the Registration Network Family Practices (Registratienet Huisartspraktijken, RNH) and stratified by age (12 strata), sex and levels of occupational activity (high/low).

Sources of Recruitment

General Population
  • Selected sample
Supplementary Information Participants of MAAS were recruited from the Registration Network Family Practices (RNH) which contains the demographic and health characteristics of patients from 15 general practices in the province of Limburg. The request for participation in the study was made by the individual's general practitioner. Note that in the Netherlands, every person is registered within the RNH.

Selection Criteria

Age Minimum age 24, Maximum age 86
Country Netherlands
Territory Province of Limburg
Other Medical exclusion criteria for the subject sampling procedure at baseline were defined as those active or inactive medical conditions in the RNH problem list that may interfere with normal cognitive function. This definition included: chronic neurological pathology (dementia, mental retardation, cerebrovascular disease, epilepsy, parkinsonism, and CNS malignancies) or chronic psychotropic drug use, history of transient ischemic attackes (ITA), brain surgery, hemodialysis for renal failure, and electroconvulsive therapy. A score below 24 on the MMSE also excluded participants.

Sample Size

Number of Participants

2,043

Supplementary Information about Number of Participants

Baseline Postal Survey: 2043 participants
Baseline Test Program: 470 participants
Follow-up 1: 212 participants (50 years old and older only)
Follow-up 2: 330 participants
Follow-up 3: 343 participants
Follow-up 4: 301 participants

Data Collection Events

NameDescriptionStartEnd
MAAS - A1 - Baseline Postal Survey

The postal survey collected information on...

1992 (September)1992 (December)
MAAS - A1 - Baseline Test Program

During a home visit, the participants were...

1993 (February)1993 (October)
MAAS - A1 - Follow-up 1

Only participants 50 years and older were...

1996 (July)1996 (December)
MAAS - A1 - Follow-up 2

All initial participants were again invited to...

1999 (June)1999 (December)
MAAS - A1 - Follow-up 3

The postal survey collected information on...

2002 (June)2002 (December)
MAAS - A1 - Follow-up 4

All initial participants were again invited to...

2005 (June)2005 (December)

MAAS - A2

Men and women aged 24 to 86 years at baseline and in general good health, sampled from the Registration Network Family Practices (Registratienet Huisartspraktijken, RNH) and stratified by age (12 strata), sex, and levels of occupational activity (high/low).

Sources of Recruitment

Specific Population
  • Clinic patients
Supplementary Information Participants of MAAS were recruited from the Registration Network Family Practices (RNH) which contains the demographic and health characteristics of patients from 15 general practices in the province of Limburg. The request for participation in the study was made by the individual's general practitioner. Note that in the Netherlands, every person is registered within the RNH.

Selection Criteria

Age Minimum age 24, Maximum age 86
Country Netherlands
Territory Province of Limburg
Other Medical exclusion criteria for the subject sampling procedure at baseline were defined as those active or inactive medical conditions in the RNH problem list that may interfere with normal cognitive function. This definition included: chronic neurological pathology (dementia, mental retardation, cerebrovascular disease, epilepsy, parkinsonism, and CNS malignancies) or chronic psychotropic drug use, history of transient ischemic attackes (ITA), brain surgery, hemodialysis for renal failure, and electroconvulsive therapy. A score below 24 on the MMSE also excluded participants.

Sample Size

Number of Participants

496

Supplementary Information about Number of Participants

Baseline: 496 participants
Follow-up 1: 211 participants
Follow-up 2: 343 participants
Follow-up 3: 339 participants
Follow-up 4: 288 participants

Data Collection Events

NameDescriptionStartEnd
MAAS - A2 - Baseline

Postal questionnaire and test program were...

1994 (June)1994 (December)
MAAS - A2 - Follow-up 1

Only participants 50 years and older were...

1997 (June)1997 (December)
MAAS - A2 - Follow-up 2

All initial participants were again invited to...

2000 (June)2000 (December)
MAAS - A2 - Follow-up 3

The postal survey collected information on...

2003 (June)2003 (December)
MAAS - A2 - Follow-up 4

All initial participants were again invited to...

2006 (June)2006 (December)

MAAS - A3

Men and women aged 24 to 86 years at baseline and in general good health, sampled from the Registration Network Family Practices (Registratienet Huisartspraktijken, RNH) and stratified by age (12 strata), sex, and levels of occupational activity (high/low).

Sources of Recruitment

Specific Population
  • Clinic patients
Supplementary Information Participants of MAAS were recruited from the Registration Network Family Practices (RNH) which contains the demographic and health characteristics of patients from 15 general practices in the province of Limburg. The request for participation in the study was made by the individual's general practitioner. Note that in the Netherlands, every person is registered within the RNH.

Selection Criteria

Age Minimum age 24, Maximum age 86
Country Netherlands
Territory Province of Limburg
Other Medical exclusion criteria for the subject sampling procedure at baseline were defined as those active or inactive medical conditions in the RNH problem list that may interfere with normal cognitive function. This definition included: chronic neurological pathology (dementia, mental retardation, cerebrovascular disease, epilepsy, parkinsonism, and CNS malignancies) or chronic psychotropic drug use, history of transient ischemic attackes (ITA), brain surgery, hemodialysis for renal failure, and electroconvulsive therapy. A score below 24 on the MMSE also excluded participants.

Sample Size

Number of Participants

459

Supplementary Information about Number of Participants

Baseline: 459 participants
Follow-up 1: 215 participants
Follow-up 2: 358 participants
Follow-up 3: 345 participants
Follow-up 4: 318 participants

Data Collection Events

NameDescriptionStartEnd
MAAS - A3 - Baseline

Postal questionnaire and test program were...

1994 (November)1995 (June)
MAAS - A3 - Follow-up 1

Only participants 50 years and older were...

1997 (November)1998 (May)
MAAS - A3 - Follow-up 2

All initial participants were again invited to...

2000 (November)2001 (May)
MAAS - A3 - Follow-up 3

The postal survey collected information on...

2003 (November)2004 (May)
MAAS - A3 - Follow-up 4

All initial participants were again invited to...

2006 (November)2007 (May)

MAAS - A4

Men and women aged 24 to 86 years at baseline and in general good health, sampled from the Registration Network Family Practices (Registratienet Huisartspraktijken, RNH) and stratified by age (12 strata), sex, and levels of occupational activity (high/low).

Sources of Recruitment

Specific Population
  • Clinic patients
Supplementary Information Participants of MAAS were recruited from the Registration Network Family Practices (RNH) which contains the demographic and health characteristics of patients from 15 general practices in the province of Limburg. The request for participation in the study was made by the individual's general practitioner. Note that in the Netherlands, every person is registered within the RNH.

Selection Criteria

Age Minimum age 24, Maximum age 86
Country Netherlands
Territory Province of Limburg.
Other Medical exclusion criteria for the subject sampling procedure at baseline were defined as those active or inactive medical conditions in the RNH problem list that may interfere with normal cognitive function. This definition included: chronic neurological pathology (dementia, mental retardation, cerebrovascular disease, epilepsy, parkinsonism, and CNS malignancies) or chronic psychotropic drug use, history of transient ischemic attackes (ITA), brain surgery, hemodialysis for renal failure, and electroconvulsive therapy. A score below 24 on the MMSE also excluded participants.

Sample Size

Number of Participants

436

Supplementary Information about Number of Participants

Baseline: 436 participants
Follow-up 1: 200 participants
Follow-up 2: 345 participants
Follow-up 3: 323 participants
Follow-up 4: 280 participants

Data Collection Events

NameDescriptionStartEnd
MAAS - A4 - Baseline

Postal questionnaire and test program were...

1995 (May)1995 (November)
MAAS - A4 - Follow-up 1

Only participants 50 years and older were...

1998 (May)1998 (November)
MAAS - A4 - Follow-up 2

All initial participants were again invited to...

2001 (May)2001 (November)
MAAS - A4 - Follow-up 3

The postal survey collected information on...

2004 (May)2004 (November)
MAAS - A4 - Follow-up 4

All initial participants were again invited to...

2007 (May)2007 (November)
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Variable Classification