The Methods Library section of our Repository provides access to reference papers and reports on approaches and methods used to retrospectively harmonize data and to apply these methods to analyze data. The Harmonization Methods Library is divided into the following two subsections: General Harmonization Guidelines and Approaches and Applied harmonization.The Harmonization Methods Library is developed in collaboration with the Integrative Analysis of Longitudinal Studies on Aging. Please send us references you think could be helpful to contribute to this new resource.

To explore resources authored exclusively by Maelstrom Research members, visit the Maelstrom publications section

General harmonization guidelines and approaches

This section provides a list of scientific articles and reports describing general guidelines and approaches used for harmonizing data. These texts were written with the conceptual or theoretical goal to describe or document data harmonization. They range from general information about data harmonization to presentation of specific methods of data harmonization but do not present results of data analysis using harmonized data. Use of harmonized data in these manuscripts is for illustrative purposes only.

  • Bauer DJ, Hussong AM. Psychometric approaches for developing commensurate measures across independent studies: traditional and new models. Psychological methods. 2009;14(2):101-25. Pubmed ID: 19485624 View article
  • Bennett SN, Caporaso N, Fitzpatrick AL, Agrawal A, Barnes K, Boyd HA, et al. Phenotype harmonization and cross-study collaboration in GWAS consortia: the GENEVA experience. Genetic epidemiology. 2011;35(3):159-73. Pubmed ID: 21284036 View article
  • Curran PJ, Hussong AM, Cai L, Huang W, Chassin L, Sher KJ, et al. Pooling data from multiple longitudinal studies: the role of item response theory in integrative data analysis. Developmental psychology. 2008;44(2):365-80. Pubmed ID: 18331129 View article
  • Curran PJ, Hussong AM. Integrative data analysis: the simultaneous analysis of multiple data sets. Psychological methods. 2009;14(2):81-100. Pubmed ID: 19485623 View article
  • Fortier I, Burton PR, Robson PJ, Ferretti V, Little J, L'Heureux F, et al. Quality, quantity and harmony: the DataSHaPER approach to integrating data across bioclinical studies. International journal of epidemiology. 2010;39(5):1383-93. Pubmed ID: 20813861 View article
  • Fortier I, Doiron D, Wolfson C, Raina P. Harmonizing data for collaborative research on aging: why should we foster such an agenda? Canadian journal on aging = La revue canadienne du vieillissement. 2012;31(1):95-9. Pubmed ID: 22373784 View article
  • Friedman HS, Kern ML, Hampson SE, Duckworth AL. A new life-span approach to conscientiousness and health: combining the pieces of the causal puzzle. Developmental psychology. 2014;50(5):1377-89. Pubmed ID: 23088747 View article
  • Griffith L, van den Heuvel E, Fortier I, Hofer S, Raina P, Sohel N, et al. Harmonization of Cognitive Measures in Individual Participant Data and Aggregate Data Meta-Analysis. AHRQ Methods for Effective Health Care. Rockville (MD)2013. Pubmed ID: 23617017 View article
  • Hofer SM, Piccinin AM. Integrative data analysis through coordination of measurement and analysis protocol across independent longitudinal studies. Psychological methods. 2009;14(2):150-64. PMID: 19485626 View article
  • Hofer SM, Piccinin AM. Toward an integrative science of life-span development and aging. The journals of gerontology Series B, Psychological sciences and social sciences. 2010;65B(3):269-78. Pubmed ID: 20237144 View article
  • Hoffmeyer-Zlotnik JHP. Harmonisation of Demographic and Socio-Economic Variables in Cross-National Survey Research. Bulletin de m├ęthodologie sociologique. 2008;98:5-24.View article
  • Hussong AM, Curran PJ, Bauer DJ. Integrative data analysis in clinical psychology research. Annual review of clinical psychology. 2013;9:61-89. Pubmed ID: 23394226 View article
  • Piccinin AM, Hofer SM. Integrative analysis of longitudinal studies on aging: Collaborative research networks, meta-analysis, and optimizing future studies.  Handbook on Cognitive Aging: Interdisciplinary Perspectives. Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications; 2008. p. 446-76 View article
  • van Buuren S, Eyres S, Tennant A, Hopman-Rock M. Improving Comparability of Existing Data by Response Conversion. Journal of Official Statistics. 2005;21(1):53-72 View article

Applied harmonization

This section provides a list of scientific articles and reports consisting of applied data harmonization procedures with the aim of analyzing data from different studies. Papers with a main objective of harmonized data analysis were included in this section only when the methods of harmonization were documented and discussed in detail.

  • Allen J, Inder KJ, Lewin TJ, Attia JR, Kay-Lambkin FJ, Baker AL, et al. Integrating and extending cohort studies: lessons from the eXtending Treatments, Education and Networks in Depression (xTEND) study. BMC medical research methodology. 2013;13:122. Pubmed ID: 24093910 View article
  • Anstey KJ, Byles JE, Luszcz MA, Mitchell P, Steel D, Booth H, et al. Cohort profile: The Dynamic Analyses to Optimize Ageing (DYNOPTA) project. International journal of epidemiology. 2010;39(1):44-51. Pubmed ID: 19151373 View article
  • Bath PA, Deeg D, Poppelaars J. The harmonisation of longitudinal data: a case study using data from cohort studies int the Netherlands and the United Kingdom. Ageing & Society. 2010;30(8):1419-37 View article
  • Cai Y, Hansell AL, Blangiardo M, Burton PR; BioSHaRE, de Hoogh K, Doiron D, Fortier I, Gulliver J, Hveem K, Mbatchou S, Morley DW, Stolk RP, Zijlema WL, Elliott P, Hodgson S. Long-term exposure to road traffic noise, ambient air pollution, and cardiovascular risk factors in the HUNT and lifelines cohorts. Eur Heart J. 2017 May 31. doi: 10.1093/eurheartj/ehx263. Pubmed ID: 28575405 View article
  • Crane PK, Narasimhalu K, Gibbons LE, Mungas DM, Haneuse S, Larson EB, et al. Item response theory facilitated cocalibrating cognitive tests and reduced bias in estimated rates of decline. Journal of clinical epidemiology. 2008;61(10):1018-27 e9. Pubmed ID: 18455909 View article
  • Doiron D, Burton P, Marcon Y, Gaye A, Wolffenbuttel BH, Perola M, et al. Data harmonization and federated analysis of population-based studies: the BioSHaRE project. Emerging themes in epidemiology. 2013;10(1):12. Pubmed ID: 24257327 View article
  • Fortier I, Doiron D, Little J, Ferretti V, L'Heureux F, Stolk RP, et al. Is rigorous retrospective harmonization possible? Application of the DataSHaPER approach across 53 large studies. International journal of epidemiology. 2011;40(5):1314-28. Pubmed ID: 21804097 View article
  • Kern ML, Hampson SE, Goldberg LR, Friedman HS. Integrating prospective longitudinal data: modeling personality and health in the Terman Life Cycle and Hawaii Longitudinal Studies. Developmental psychology. 2014;50(5):1390-406. Pubmed ID: 23231689 View article
  • McArdle JJ, Grimm KJ, Hamagami F, Bowles RP, Meredith W. Modeling life-span growth curves of cognition using longitudinal data with multiple samples and changing scales of measurement. Psychological methods. 2009;14(2):126-49. Pubmed ID: 19485625 View article
  • Minicuci N, Noale M, Bardage C, Blumstein T, Deeg DJ, Gindin J, et al. Cross-national determinants of quality of life from six longitudinal studies on aging: the CLESA project. Aging clinical and experimental research. 2003;15(3):187-202. Pubmed ID: 14582681 View article
  • Schaap LA, Peeters GM, Dennison EM, Zambon S, Nikolaus T, Sanchez-Martinez M, et al. European Project on OSteoArthritis (EPOSA): methodological challenges in harmonization of existing data from five European population-based cohorts on aging. BMC musculoskeletal disorders. 2011;12:272. Pubmed ID: 22122831 View article
  • van Buuren S, Eyres S, Tennant A, Hopman-Rock M. Assessing comparability of dressing disability in different countries by response conversion. European journal of public health. 2003;13(3 Suppl):15-9. Pubmed ID: 14533743 View article
  • van den Berg SM, de Moor MH, McGue M, Pettersson E, Terracciano A, Verweij KJ, et al. Harmonization of Neuroticism and Extraversion phenotypes across inventories and cohorts in the Genetics of Personality Consortium: an application of Item Response Theory. Behavior genetics. 2014;44(4):295-313. Pubmed ID: 24828478 View article
  • van der Steen JT, Kruse RL, Szafara KL, Mehr DR, van der Wal G, Ribbe MW, et al. Benefits and pitfalls of pooling datasets from comparable observational studies: combining US and Dutch nursing home studies. Palliative medicine. 2008;22(6):750-9. Pubmed ID: 18715975 View article