To study gender differences during the aging process.

Study Design

Study Design Cohort
General Information on Follow Up (profile, frequency)

GENDER is a study of unlike-sex twin pairs born between 1906 and 1925 (Gold et al., 2002). A survey concerning health and health behavior was mailed in 1994 with responses from 1210 twins from 605 pairs where both responded. Mean age at baseline questionnaire assessment was 74.43 (SD 4.28) and all are Caucasians. A baseline in-person evaluation of 498 twins from 249 pairs between 70 and 80 years of age was undertaken between 1995 and 1997, and included an interview and tests of cognitive and physical functioning. Two additional in-person waves followed at 4-year intervals. Finally, a second survey was mailed in 2007 to all living twins who participated in the first mailed survey.

Recruitment Target
  • Families
Number of Participants

1,210

Number of Participants with Biosamples

470

Access

Access to external researchers or third parties provided or foreseen.

Data (questionnaire-derived, measured...)

Biosamples

Marker Paper

Gold, C. H., Malmberg, B., McClearn, G. E., Pedersen, N. L., & Berg, S. (2002). Gender and health: A study of older unlike-sex twins. Journals of Gerontology: Series B: Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences, 57B, S168-S176.

PUBMED 11983743

Study Timeline

Each colour in the timeline graph below represents a separate Study Population, while each segment in the graph represents a separate Data Collection Event. Clicking on a segment gives more detailed information on a Data Collection Event.

Population

Swedish unlike sex twins

Population comprises unlike-sex twin pairs born between 1906 and 1925 (Gold et al., 2002). A survey concerning health and health behavior was mailed in 1994 with responses from 1210 twins from 605 pairs where both responded. Mean age at baseline questionnaire assessment was 74.43 (SD 4.28) and all were Caucasians. A baseline in-person evaluation of 498 twins from 249 pairs between 70 and 80 years of age was undertaken between 1995 and 1997, and included an interview and tests of cognitive and physical functioning. Two additional in-person waves followed at 4-year intervals. Finally, a second survey was mailed in 2007 to all living twins who participated in the first mailed survey.

Sources of Recruitment

General Population
  • Selected sample

Selection Criteria

Age Minimum age 69, Maximum age 88
Twins
Country Sweden
Territory

Across all of Sweden

Other

Born between 1906 and 1925 and alive in 1994

Sample Size

Number of Participants

1,210

Number of Participants with Biosamples

470

Supplementary Information about Number of Participants

Of the 498 persons who participated in the first in-person testing, 470 agreed to provide biological samples.

Data Collection Events

NameDescriptionStartEnd
Gender Baseline survey

Baseline survey consisted of questions...

19941994
Gender Baseline in-person evaluation

Baseline in-person evaluation consisting of an...

19951997
Gender Follow-up 1

Follow-up study included an interview and tests...

19992001
Gender Follow-up 2

Folow-up study included an interview and tests...

20032005
Gender Follow-up survey

Follow-up survey mailed to all living twins...

20072007
Loading...
Loading...

Variable Classification