The general aim of the study is to assess a wide range of modifiable lifestyle factors (diet, dietary supplements, physical activity, smoking, alcohol, body weight and other anthropometric measures, etc.) and genetic factors in a large population-based longitudinal cohort of Swedish middle-aged and elderly women.

  • Extensive questionnaire-based data on diet and other lifestyle factors enables studies of relevance for primary and secondary prevention of cancer (common and rare types), cardiovascular diseases, type 2 diabetes, osteoporosis, neurodegenerative diseases, age-related cataract, rheumatoid arthritis, lower urinary tract symptoms, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, obesity etc.
  • Extensive register-based information on health status facilitates studies of multimorbidity, polypharmacy, ageing, and overall and cause-specific mortality.
  • Biorepository with a broad spectrum of samples (saliva, blood, urine, adipose tissue, faeces), complemented with clinical data, enables studies of genetic factors and other factors of relevance for detection of biomarkers for early diagnosis and progression.

General Design

Study Design Cohort
General Information on Follow Up (profile, frequency)

After baseline, participants were followed-up three times for updated exposure information, in 1997, 2008 and 2009.
Information on health status is updated every year by linkage to registries.

Recruitment Target
  • Individuals
Number of Participants


Number of Participants with Biological Samples


Supplementary Information about Number of Participants

Saliva sample: 8744 participants
Clinical subcohort samples (Cycle 1): 6231 participants
Clinical subcohort samples (Cycle 2): ~400 (June 2016; ongoing)


Not Applicable
Don't Know
Possible Access to Data

Possible Access to Biosamples


Marker Paper

Harris H, Håkansson N, Olofsson C, Stackelberg O, Julin B, Åkesson A, et al. The Swedish mammography cohort and the cohort of Swedish men: study design and characteristics of two population-based longitudinal cohorts. OA Epidemiology 2013 Oct 01;1(2):16.

Study Timeline

Each colour in the timeline graph below represents a separate Study Population, while each segment in the graph represents a separate Data Collection Event. Clicking on a segment gives more detailed information on a Data Collection Event.


SMC population

The cohort is composed of women born between 1914 and 1948 and residing in the Uppsala County of central Sweden and in the adjacent Västmanland County at the time of recruitment.

Sources of Recruitment

General Population
  • Selected sample
Supplementary Information All women born between 1914 and 1948 were invited to participate.

Selection Criteria

Gender Women only
Age Minimum age 39, Maximum age 76
Country Sweden
Territory Uppsala and Västmanland Counties (central Sweden)

Sample Size

Number of Participants


Number of Participants with Biological Samples


Supplementary Information about Number of Participants

1987: 66 651 participants
1997: 39 227 participants
2008: 30 621 participants
2009: 25 332 participants
Saliva sample: 8744 participants
Clinical subcohort samples (Cycle 1): 6,231 participants
Clinical subcohort samples (Cycle 2): ~400 participants (June 2016; ongoing)

Data Collection Events

SMC - 1987 (baseline)

The questionnaire was sent by mail and included...

1987 (March)1990 (December)
SMC - Registries

Information from health registries is updated...

1987 (March)2016 (December)
SMC - 1997 (2nd follow-up)

The second questionnaire collected information...

1997 (September)1997 (December)
SMC - Clinical exmination (Cycle 1, recruitment 1)

Participants from Uppsala were invited to...

2003 (September)2009 (September)
SMC - Saliva

Saliva was collected at different time points...

2005 (January)2008 (December)
SMC - 2008 (3rd (a) follow-up)

The 2008 questionnaire collected information...

2008 (September)2008 (December)
SMC - 2009 (3rd (b) follow-up)

The fourth questionnaire collected information...

2009 (April)2009 (December)
SMC - Clinical examination (Cycle 1, recruitment 2)

In a second recruitment round, additional SMC...

2010 (April)2015 (September)
SMC - Clinical examination (Cycle 2)

Women who participated in the first SMC...

2015 (October)2016 (December)

Variables classifications